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If you are using Photoshop CS4, be sure to read Chapter 17 for information on getting started. For the latest version, Photoshop CS5, you can read the information for Photoshop CS6 in Chapter 17.

Photoshop has built-in RAW format support. Other image editors may be best suited for image manipulation of RAW images and for someone who already has experience with other image editing software. The RAW format has recently been revised to use uncompressed 8-bit data instead of the previously used 12-bit compressed files. This has made image editing on the computer much faster and provides more realistic color, sharper images, and less artifacting. The RAW format support enables you to open image files without any conversion process. The RAW format is really a standard for computer sensors, as opposed to a brand name. RAW images are already converted to either a TIFF file (Color) or a JPEG file (Black and White). Regardless of the format the RAW file is saved in, you will see a file name with the.DNG file extension, for example, `IMG_1223.DNG`.

The following sections provide an overview of some of the basic functions of Photoshop and the differences between the various tools available.

The Tools panel

When you open Photoshop for the first time, you see the Tools panel window (as shown in Figure 2-1) with the following icons in the bottom row:

The front most icon in the Tools panel

**Figure 2-1:** The Tools panel displays the Tools available in Photoshop.

The top row Tools palette

**Figure 2-2:** The Tools palette provides a set of tools organized by main feature.

This window displays the Tools palette with six tabs that can be customized for personal preference. Two of the tabs work with all of the tools, and the others are tied to specific tools.

When you create a new document in Photoshop, the first thing you see is the Tools panel. The Tools panel in Figure 2-1 shows the top row of icons with a few useful tools to learn how to use. Click any of the icons to open that tool. Next to that tool is a menu with a small blue circle to the right of the tool. Click that circle to open a menu containing the tools available for that tool. By default, all tools on the panel have a Menu, with options, icon, and Batch Tasks tool.

The following tools are available in the top row

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In this article, we’ll look at many of the features in Photoshop and Photoshop Elements in detail and discover what makes it so popular among graphic designers.

In this article, we’ll look at many of the features in Photoshop and Photoshop Elements in detail and discover what makes it so popular among graphic designers.

1. Adjustments, Filter, Layers

One of the first things you’ll want to do in a design project is to create a new document. There are many ways to create new images in Photoshop, but they all involve opening a new document and setting the active layer.

You can start a new image as you would in many other image editing programs, like GIMP. Click File > New, then select the type of file you want to make. In Photoshop Elements, choose Image > New.

The new document opens with a blank background and an active layer, which is where you’ll begin to make changes to your image. You can use the following menu items to create a new document:

File > New

Image > New

Photoshop Elements has a choice of color profiles: sRGB, Adobe RGB, and more. Photoshop supports a wide range of color types, although you can only change them in the Layers panel.

2. Image adjustment tools

Adobe Photoshop is packed with tools for adjusting the color, contrast, and sharpness of your image. It includes tools for smoothing, cropping, and masking.

You can access the adjustments by selecting the Image Adjustments icon in the Tools menu. Photoshop Elements only includes the basic version of the tools, which can be accessed from Image > Adjustments.

The following tools are present:

Smooth Image

Smooth Image is a powerful tool for smoothing wrinkles, blurring the background of the image, and more. To use it, simply drag a selection from the edge of the image to the area you want to smooth.

Smooth Image works best on large images, and it’s often useful for creating a smoother background for a logo or other complex image. It’s only available on the full version of Photoshop.

Mask & Mask Options

Mask & Mask Options allows you to choose a mask area as well as create a Smart Object or Blend, which works as an independent layer. You can adjust the value of the mask and change the color using an eyedro

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* **Spit tool** : Use the sculpting tools to make simple geometric shapes like circles and squares.
* **Direct Selection tool** : This tool makes selections that you can use to move objects or paint on them. It also allows you to select edges and corners.
* **Brush or Pen Tool** : It is the most powerful tool in Photoshop. With this tool you can draw and paint any shape you can imagine, and it’s especially useful when it’s hard to edit or create shapes with other tools.

Use the tools in this chapter to create and edit any kind of shape you need. Some tools come in different varieties, and each one is a bit different in how it works.

## Aligning a Shape

To align a shape, first create it, then go to the Object menu and click Align. In the Align dialog box, drag the anchor point to the location where you want the shape to be. While you drag, the shape changes shape automatically—just make sure you don’t drag to the left or right edge of the screen because that would cause the shape to disappear.

Figure 7-1. To align a shape, choose Object Align. Drag the anchor point to a corner, and then drop it there.

You can also align shapes on a specific anchor point, such as the left or right corners of a shape. To do so, first create the shape, then go to the tool’s Options bar (Figure 7-1, top). In the pop-up menu, select the anchor point you want to use, and then drag the shape until it lines up with the anchor point.

## Adjusting the Size and Position of a Shape

Although you can change the size and position of any shape you draw, you can’t change the width of an image when it’s inside another shape. If you want to resize an image in a picture frame, or an image inside a picture frame, you have to use an external program like Irfanview ( or Photo Paint Shop Pro (

If you want to resize a shape, first create it, then choose Select Refine Edge (Figure 7-2).

Figure 7-2. In the Refine Edge dialog box, you can change the size and shape of any selected object. In this case, we’re trying to make the

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681 N.W.2d 744 (2004)
In re Estate of Annie C. DEZARK, Deceased.
Manuel J. DeZark, Petitioner-Appellant,
Coy L. DeVault, Respondent-Appellee.
No. 04-0617.
Court of Appeals of Minnesota.
September 7, 2004.
*745 Kenneth F. Mackie, Steven J. Richter, Mackie & Richter, P.A., Willmar, MN, for petitioner-appellant.
Kathleen M. Connolly, Robert K. Marcou, Marcou & Marcou, P.L.L.P., Watertown, WI, for respondent-appellee.
Considered and decided by PARKER, Presiding Judge; WILLIS, Judge; and SHUMAKER, Judge.

This is an appeal from the district court’s judgment denying appellant’s motion for new trial following a jury trial. Appellant challenges the district court’s denial of his motion for a new trial based on newly discovered evidence, the trial court’s exclusion of a document, and the trial court’s grant of respondent’s motion for a directed verdict. We affirm.

Appellant Manuel DeZark and his deceased mother, Annie DeZark, were involved in a dispute concerning an insurance policy, a life-insurance policy, and a trust. In 2003, DeZark sued respondent Coy DeVault for breach of fiduciary duty. On the eve of trial, DeVault discovered a will, executed on January 3, 2000, that named DeVault as beneficiary of the life-insurance policy. On the morning of the trial, DeVault called DeZark’s lawyer and notified him of the will and asked that DeZark’s lawyer notify DeZark immediately. The trial proceeded and, at the conclusion of the evidence, DeVault moved for a directed verdict. The trial court granted the motion.
DeZark asked the district court to set aside the judgment and order a new trial, arguing that he could produce evidence that DeVault made a false promise that he would execute a will that would name DeZark as beneficiary of DeVault’s life-insurance policy. The district court denied DeZark’s motion. The district court stated that the will was disclosed during discovery and that De

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